Fertilizers


Description

Fertilizers, in agriculture and gardening, include substances and techniques that aim to bring nutrients to the soil, to stabilize it, to modify or improve its chemical-physical properties in order to favor plant growth and increase production. In a broad sense, fertilizers not only include substances or products having a specific chemical or organic composition, but also precise cultivation techniques that aim to enhance the “fertility” of the soil and plants. Among the most common fertilizers we find fertilizers, but also substances (synthetic or biological) defined as amendments or corrective. Fertilizers are mainly used to bring essential nutrients to the soil for plant growth, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, while soil improvers are used to modify the chemical-physical characteristics of the soil to make them more suited to the needs of the cultivated species. The soil improvers essentially aim at modifying the PH of the soil, making it acidic, if basic, and vice versa, while the corrective agents are used to make land with anomalous physical characteristics cultivable. Generally, anomalies in certain soils are corrected by returning them to a neutral pH.


Fertilizing techniques

In addition to certain chemical and natural substances, fertilizers can also include specific cultivation practices that aim to improve the quality of the soil and of the cultivated plant. Expanding the definition of "fertilizer" we could also include in this term the technique of irrigation, aeration, plowing, green manuring and turning the soil, up to pruning and grafting. In fact, all cultivation practices aim at the same objectives: to promote healthy plant growth, to ensure proper nutrition of the soil and plant roots, to make cultivated species more resistant to adversity and disease. Fertilizing the soil through specific substances and targeted techniques is the fundamental step to learn how to grow your own plants, both for ornamental purposes and for purely agricultural purposes.


Chemical fertilizers

Strictly speaking, however, the term "fertilizer" refers to certain substances which, added to the soil, condition its nutrition and the ability to promote adequate and healthy development of plants. Among the main fertilizers used in agriculture and gardening, chemical ones stand out, especially in modern times. These are products obtained from more or less complex industrial processes that use mixtures of mineral substances useful for soil fertilization. The substances necessary for the soil, present in nature, such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, magnesium and others, are combined with other chemical compounds that accentuate the effectiveness and fertilization times of the soil itself. Chemical fertilizers containing soil nourishing substances are also called fertilizers. On the market there are chemical fertilizers in liquid, granular or powder form. On the basis of the formulation and the substance contained, the phosphatic, nitrogen and potassium ones are distinguished. Combinations with other chemical components can lead to the emergence of potassium or phosphatic chlorides and sulphates and nitrogenous nitrates and urea. Chemical fertilizers have recorded excessive consumption in recent years due to their ease of transport and extremely accessible selling prices, even if some studies show that these substances have a high environmental impact considering them among the likely products responsible for the greenhouse effect. Among the chemical fertilizers, there are maleic acid vinyl acetate and ferric salts, while among the corrective fertilizers we mention calcium cyanamide, calcium nitrate, ammonium and potassium sulphate, chloride (always potassium) and mineral superphosphate. Complex chemical fertilizers, that is composed of several elements, can have both a nutritional and amended and corrective function, so much so as to make the boundaries that differentiate fertilization from fertilization very narrow.


Natural fertilizers

Natural fertilizers derive from organic substances, that is, from living organisms that have undergone molecular transformations by microorganisms or specific treatments, but not of an industrial nature. Natural fertilizers have the advantage of not being polluting and in any case of being less polluting than chemical ones and of respecting better the physiology of the soil and the plant. Among other things, natural fertilizers are those allowed in organic farming which, in its cultivation methods, precisely excludes the use of chemicals and other industrial processes. Even natural fertilizers, like chemical ones, can have a nutritional, corrective and amending function at the same time. This is the case of manure, which contains both compounds essential for plant nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), and minerals with amending properties, such as calcium and magnesium. Fertilization can also take place with other absolutely natural products, such as clay, sand, with amending functions, dried animal blood, with nutritional functions, humus, which includes peat, and compost.


Humus

Humus is considered the main one fertilizer natural. It is a substance that is formed from the decomposition of plant waste (leaves, wood, flower petals, roots). The plant parts that plants lose under certain conditions, accumulate on the ground and are decomposed by microorganisms that break them down into elementary organic substances rich in carbon and nutrients. The decomposition of the organic parts of plants occurs in conditions of stagnation or immersion or particular aeration. Humus can form in swamps, but also in forests. Based on the conditions in which it is formed, we will have different types of humus, with a different mineral composition from one compound to another. In conditions of total immersion, peat is formed, which is the precursor to coal. Peat derives from the organic decomposition of plant and animal remains immersed in water and is used as a nutrient and for the soil, also promoting its permeability. Some types of peat, such as white peat, without nitrogen and mineral salts, are used as fertilizers for carnivorous plants. Acid humus is formed on forest soils, while calcium humus is created on agricultural and prairie soils. Humus is of almost fundamental importance in the biological fertilization processes of the soil because it allows a better absorption of nutrients, an excellent water retention, which reduces the costs for irrigation, and a good interaction with the mineral substances that allow to improve the chemical and physical characteristics of the soil.


Compost

Compost is a sort of artificial humus obtained through human (but not chemical) processes that make it possible to obtain a substance similar to humus, derived from the decomposition of organic matter (remains of plants, wood, insects and animals) by bacteria and microorganisms. The difference between compost and humus lies in the methods of obtaining the fertilizer. The first is obtained by processing organic waste in special industrial plants, called composting centers. In these plants the conditions are recreated to favor the development of microorganisms and bacteria that feed on the waste, transforming it into compost. Compost is also obtained from the disposal of organic household waste (fruit peels, leftovers from lunch, dinner and the like). In the home and in the garden, compost can be obtained with very simple methods. The most important are heap and surface composting. Pile compost is obtained by shredding various organic waste (old soil, withered flowers, straw, coffee grounds, leaves and stems of legumes, fruit, etc.). Adding wood to the chopped substances improves the decomposition process. The waste can be chopped by hand or with special choppers. The waste mixture must be added with other nutrient-rich substances, such as manure, which is rich in nitrogen and serves to bind with carbon, enhancing the properties of the compost. The mixture must be decomposed in a well-ventilated place, taking care to humidify it in hot and dry periods and to protect it during the most humid and rainy ones. The aeration prevents the accumulation of moisture in the compost, which can cause the development of harmful molds. The surface compost is obtained with the same technique as that in heap, except that the chopped pile must be decomposed at the foot of the plants. Before this procedure, the soil must be hoed, while the heap must be stirred frequently to ensure good ventilation.


Plowing

Cultivation techniques also play a role fertilizer for the ground. Among these techniques we find plowing, practiced in agricultural fields. Plowing consists in overturning some clods of the soil with the plow. This tool moves the soil by cutting or overturning it. Plowing is carried out in areas, that is, proceeding on portions of land called slices. The different movements on the individual slices will involve the complete plowing of the soil. The purpose of plowing is to improve the chemical and physical characteristics of the soil to make it suitable for plant cultivation. The movement of the soil also stimulates its aeration which, in turn, facilitates the action of bacteria, also promoting the absorption of nutrients.


Green manure

Among the fertilization techniques we also remember the green manure. This technique consists in burying specific crops to improve soil fertility. Green manure allows greater absorption of atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. With this practice, the risk of soil erosion is slowed, the availability of nitric nitrogen is maintained and the quantity of organic substance necessary for plant nutrition is increased. Green manure is practiced in organic farming, especially in areas with an arid and hot climate, where organic fertilizers can sometimes be scarce.



Natural fertilizers for your biodynamic garden

Natural fertilizers for your biodynamic garden

It's extraordinary how in biodynamic agriculture seek remedies for the care of plants through what Nature itself produces and gives us. It is fascinating to observe how in Nature there is everything that this needs for its needs, in perfect balance, harmony and respect with all beings and organisms that interact with it.

To produce natural fertilizers for the care of our plants is an activity that is part of a process aimed at respecting the environment, saving energy and time that wants us to get in tune and close contact with nature and its infinite resources and possibilities. Let's see together some types of natural fertilizers that help us take care of the our biodynamic garden.


Fertilizers for the garden: features of spring dressing of plants in the garden

Already with the first spring sunshine in the garden, the work begins. Plants need to be prepared for the summer season, cut, whitewashed, treated with pests. Towards the end of March, right along the ice crust, the first fertilizers are introduced. The choice of them is huge and novice gardeners can [...]

Already with the first spring sunshine in the garden, the work begins. Plants need to be prepared for the summer season, cut, whitewashed, treated with pests. Towards the end of March, right along the ice crust, the first fertilizers are introduced. The choice of them is huge, and novice gardeners may find it difficult to understand what and when to do. In this article, we will talk about proper garden nutrition.

  1. Mineral fertilizers for the garden
    • Phosphate fertilizers
    • Potassium fertilizers
    • Nitrogen fertilizers for the garden
  2. Organic fertilizers
    • manure
    • Bird droppings as a fertilizer for the garden
    • fertilizer
    • ash
    • sapropel
    • A variety of organic fertilizers for the garden
  3. "Healthy garden" homeopathic fertilizer
  4. Complex fertilizers
  5. Mistakes that cannot be made when applying fertilizer

Mineral fertilizers for the garden

Phosphate fertilizers

The most common fertilizers with phosphorus content are phosphorus flour and superphosphate.

  • Most summer residents choose superphosphate tested over decades as granules, with a phosphorus content of 48%. The moment of its introduction into the soil depends on a certain culture, but nevertheless it refers to the autumn fertilizers that are introduced under the excavation of the soil. This is due to the fact that phosphorus is needed to form a good root system, which is so important for the successful wintering of plants.
  • With the application of the spring, the number of flower buds increases, stimulates the formation of fruits.

Tip: Phosphoric mineral fertilizers are not recommended to be applied simultaneously with lime, as it interferes with the assimilation of phosphorus by the roots.

  • The fertilizer consumption is always indicated on the package, for example for double superphosphate it is 80-100 g / m2.
  • For faster assimilation of phosphorus by plants, it is recommended to prepare a liquid top dressing. To do this, superphosphate is immersed in water for three days. For irrigation, only liquid fertilizer is suitable, and the sediment can be poured into the compost pile.

Potassium fertilizers

  • Potassium increases the resistance of plants to unfavorable external factors, such as frost, drought or pests. Experimentally, potash fertilizers have been shown to help significantly reduce the degree of plant damage from fungal diseases. But it is quickly washed off by rain, so its regular introduction into the soil or spraying is required.

  • It is better to introduce potash fertilizers along with phosphorus fertilizers. However, it is recommended to exclude the combination with nitrogen. This is due to the fact that potassium increases the amount of carbohydrates in the root system that are so necessary for the formation of mycorrhiza, but nitrogen fertilizers begin to use them to form their organic compounds.

How to use potash fertilizer correctly:

  • It should not be used when growing seedlings and when transplanting garden plant seedlings to a permanent place
  • for arid areas or for fertilizing plants in greenhouses it is better to use granular potassium sulfate, and for regions with frequent rains, potassium nitrate or potassium chloride will be produced
  • for acid soils it will be better to use potassium chloride
  • they are compatible with almost all fertilizers
  • potassium fertilizers arrive at the roots of the plant only after dissolving with water, so when you do it it is important to water them, but not too much. Otherwise, the potassium will simply dissolve without having to suck up the roots
  • it is recommended to make them in a small amount, but often. This gives a better result than twice as high a dose per season
  • it is impossible to pour top dressing directly on the stem of the plant, it is necessary to retreat by 15-20 cm

Nitrogen fertilizers for the garden

Popular fertilizer containing nitrogen, which is suitable for fertilizing the garden in the spring:

  • all types of saltpetre (sodium, potassium, calcium, ammonium)
  • urea, the second name is urea
  • NPK.

The highest percentage of nitrogen is in ammonium nitrate, where it is 1/3 of the fertilizer. But taking it into the ground should be taken into account that it significantly acidifies the earth, so together with it it is recommended to make lime.

How to use nitrogen fertilizers correctly:

  • It is not recommended to introduce it together with fertilizers containing phosphorus (superphosphate or phosphorus flour)
  • for watering seedlings in spring or rooted seedlings in summer, it is better to use a liquid solution. To make it at home, you need to dilute 10 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 liters of water. Ammonia solution is not only poured under the root, but also sprinkled with foliage. Hence, organic substances are quickly absorbed by plants
  • with a dry application, it is recommended to apply nitrogen fertilizers in spring or in the first half of summer, as they stimulate the accumulation of green mass. The exception is the garden strawberry, it needs nitrogen at the end of the summer, so that it will have time to grow more leaves in the winter, which will protect it from winter frosts
  • with the exception of food, nitrogen-containing solutions can be used to combat plant diseases. For example, urea with a high nitrogen content (46%) is perfectly suited to the prevention of scab or mold
  • for acid soils, it is advisable to discontinue the choice on calcium or sodium nitrate. Although their nitrogen content does not exceed 15-16%, they perfectly stimulate plant growth without acidifying the soil
  • Do not use in your garden nitrogen fertilizers, which contain chlorine additives. Not only do they worsen the composition of the soil, but they can also adversely affect the physiological development of many garden crops
  • under fruit trees and bushes, nitrogen fertilizers are introduced 2 times per season. First in the spring, when the ground warms up and there is no likelihood of reverse frosts. And the second time - in the early summer. If the soil is clayey, fertilizer, such as ammonium sulfate, can be introduced until the fall. But necessarily bury in the ground, otherwise they quickly lose useful properties
  • to get them into the logs, they should be evenly distributed. If the soil is dry and rain is not expected, then water it. This will prevent a root system burn.

Organic fertilizers

You can not only buy fertilizers for the garden, but also make them yourself.

Manure

  • This is undoubtedly the most popular organic fertilizer in vegetable gardens and villages. Depending on who (cow, horse) depends on the dosage and how it is introduced into the soil. But in any case, it cannot be used fresh, since all the substances necessary for the plant are still in an unused form.
  • When the manure settles, decomposition processes begin, which form a large amount of toxic gas for plants. In addition, the risk of germination of weed seeds is considerable, which did not have time to fade.

How to properly use manure as a fertilizer:

  • before application, manure must necessarily be turned over. To do this, put it in a pile, sprinkle the top with a layer of peat 20-25 cm and leave it for the whole summer. But this method is not suitable for horse manure, it will run out. It is recommended to leave it for a short time (no more than 2х3-3 weeks)
  • for a higher concentration of fertilizer, manure can be added to mineral fertilizers. Thus, 100 kg of manure requires 1-2 kg of superphosphate. It is desirable to add this fertilizer to the soil once in 2 seasonal seasons. The cost depends on the fertility of the soil and on average is 5 kg / m2.

Bird droppings as a fertilizer for the garden

Bird litter is worth mentioning separately, insofar as the concentration of nutrients for plants is significantly higher than cow and horse fertilizer.

  • In its pure form, it cannot be applied to plants even from those that have rotted, only for the autumn or spring digging of the soil. On average, consumption per square meter of land should not exceed 250 g.

  • Use it to fertilize plants in the summer can only be in liquid form. To do this, fill the tank with bird litter a third and fill it with water. To make the solution mature, it should be mixed for 3-4 days. But even in this case the concentration remains too high, so before the direct application of a solution under a plant, it must be diluted with water 4 times.

Fertilizer

This is an excellent organic fertilizer, which practically does not require financial investments.

  • It is done in many ways, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages. For example, many dig a compost hole and add organic waste, sloping grass, and other unnecessary vegetation during the summer season (except for weeds that may eventually sprout). This method is the cheapest, but to make compost you have to pull the entire heap. And due to the lack of air access, the decomposition process is a bit slower.
  • The second way - compost boxes. They are sold already made of plastic or made by themselves. The main thing is to provide a door at the bottom, through which it will be convenient to take compost in the future. To accelerate the ripening of fertilizers, it is recommended to use special compounds, for example, "Baikal". In addition, the compost pile can be periodically watered and covered with a film. Some gardeners add bird droppings to the compost pile.
  • To prevent an unpleasant odor due to the ripening of the compost, each layer of new waste must be covered with peat.
  • If shredded branches or sawdust were added to the compost, then in this case it will not be suitable for fertilizing the soil until after 1-1.5 years.

Ash

Hardwood ashes make an excellent addition to mineral fertilizers. It is rich in phosphorus, potassium, calcium and a number of other microelements, which are easily assimilated by plants.

How to make ash correctly:

  • In the place protected from moisture, the ash can be stored for years, while the calcium, phosphorus and potassium will be preserved. But it is more convenient to do it during the entire vegetative period directly from the stove
  • The ashes are always poured into the plantation pit, along with fertilizer or overripe manure. The soil filled in this way within 3-4 years will give the plant useful micronutrients, which means that it will no longer need additional fertilizers
  • under the young plants, the ash is dispersed in early spring. Together with melted snow, it will penetrate into the surface roots and be fed already at zero temperature
  • ash is good in that it contains a large amount of calcium, but there are no chlorine-containing substances.

Sapropel

  • This is also a type of organic fertilizer. Sapropel is a deposit from the bottom of the tanks, which rotates with the silt and thus accumulates useful trace elements. It can be added to compost or mixed with mineral fertilizers when planted.

A variety of organic fertilizers for the garden

  • "Darin" - this is a whole series of drugs, but they are all made on the basis of sapropel. They also added a complex of mineral fertilizers, such as nitrogen, humic acids, phosphorus, potassium. Significantly affects the increase in yield.
  • EM It is the name of the fertilizer, which stands for effective microorganisms. It is added to the compost, which significantly speeds up its preparation (1-2 months). Most effective when done through composting in the fall. Suitable for poor soils and economical to use.
  • TMAU- Peat and mineral ammonia fertilizers. They are produced on the basis of peat, ammonia water, potassium chloride, superphosphate and a number of trace elements. It is suitable for dressing all fruit and berry bushes and trees. For the season, it is enough to add 1 kg of the mixture to the stem of the adult plant.
  • Top herb dressing. For this purpose, blunt garden grass, dandelion, nettle, plantain, mustard and mocryca are excellent. They fill a third of the container and fill it with water. A few days later the fertilizer will be ready. It is suitable for all garden plants, but has an extremely unpleasant smell.

  • Eggshell. Crushed eggshell is rich in calcium, plus it helps reduce the acidity of the soil. It is recommended to use it for feeding sea buckthorn berries, cherries, plums, because these crops react very acutely to the high acidity of the soil.

"Healthy garden" homeopathic fertilizer

  • This drug, invented in St. Petersburg and has no analogues in the world. It is ecologically safe, as it consists of refined sugar granules, which are structured under the influence of magnesium, potassium, sodium and even gold.

  • The "healthy garden" fertilizer purifies vegetables from nitrates, protects plants from pests and diseases. It is recommended to use it for those whose vegetable garden is close to the motorways.
  • At the site "healthy garden" is used when watering or spraying young and adult plants. Since it is sold in the form of granules, it will be necessary to make a solution independently. To do this in 1 liter, it is necessary to dissolve 2 granules.

  • plants become more resistant to most diseases, including scab and powdery mildew
  • their resistance to drought increases
  • it is especially effective for apple trees, after application of the drug the deciduous decreases several times, due to the fact that the plants are not affected by aphids, apple moth, saw apple
  • the accumulation of various poisons by plants is reduced. Which can enter the soil together with fertilizers
  • Cut flowers last longer in water.

Complex fertilizers

Specially developed for herbal preparations, they contain all the necessary trace elements in the right proportions. They are chosen in such a way that everyone is assimilated with maximum benefit and respectful of the environment.

  • "The giant" - granulated fertilizer for all types of horticultural crops. After application, the soil is enriched for 3-4 years. It does not require dissolution in water. When planting cucumbers or a tomato in the planting pit, make 1 tbsp. a spoonful of granules.
  • "Berry" - as the name suggests, it is suitable for application under berry bushes. Especially liked by strawberries and strawberries, which are damaged by excess mineral fertilizer. It not only increases the yield, but also accelerates the ripening of the berries. To bring it in the spring for 1 tbsp. spoons under the bush and in the summer, again during the ripening of the crop. It is also recommended to use it for raspberries, honeysuckle, currants and other berry bushes.
  • "Ideal" sold in liquid form in 1.5 liters. bottles. This highly concentrated preparation is suitable for top dressing of all garden crops. It affects the increase in yield and the resistance of plants to diseases and pests, for example, to black leg and powdery mildew. It is also used for feeding through the leaves, previously diluting 50 ml of the solution in 10 liters of water. The spray should be done twice a season, spending 5 liters / m2.


Coffee grounds

How many things are i coffee grounds! From cleaning drains and pipes, to remedying wrinkles and cellulite, as well as how natural fertilizer, thanks to the presence of nitrogen and antioxidants. These substances are able to enrich the soil. Coffee grounds can also be added to compost or, once crumbled, scattered on the ground, making it more acidic.

The best use of this natural fertilizer is found in azaleas, camellias, blueberries, rhododendrons, roses and more generally in all evergreen plants. Thanks to the contribution of many nutrients to the soil, the coffee grounds also perform an action repellent against parasites and snails.


Egg shells

Even this kitchen waste element is precious for our vegetable garden or garden: washed, chopped and buried in the ground, i egg shells they favor the fertility of the soil and also fight i parasites that infest plants, as well as soft-bodied animals - snails, snails, caterpillars and vermicelli, capable of ruining our leaves.

In addition, the egg shells contain calcium carbonate for over 90% and are also used to tackle one of the most common problems for growing a vegetable garden or keeping seedlings on the balcony. Among the most typical cases, the tomato plant which in many cases is not strong enough to bear the weight of the fruit: thanks to the egg shells, in this way, it becomes stronger.


Fertilizers and fertilizers for plants and flowers

Gardena Manual fertilizer spreader M

This product is currently not available!

DieWurmfarm Tenefert - BIO Flour Moth fertilizer

  • Completely natural
  • For all fruit, vegetable and ornamental plants
  • Sustainably produced in Austria

Rotes Gold Red Clay Powder - 3 kg

Biotaurus Harvest Happy - Activator for Organic Plants

  • For all fruit and vegetable plants
  • Alternative to fertilizer
  • 100% natural

Biotaurus Citrus in Festa - Activator for Organic Plants

Biotaurus Green Thumb - Activator For Organic Plants

Biotaurus Dream of Orchids - Activator For Organic Plants

Biotaurus Giardino Felice - Activator for Organic Plants

Biotaurus Magia di Rose - Activator for Organic Plants

Oleum Viva Oleum Viva Emulsion 60 ml

Lithos LithoPlant

Urbanscape Green Flocks

Biotaurus Oasis in Balcony - Activator for Organic Plants

Shipping in 1-2 weeks

BioGarten Steiner Organic Sheep Wool Fertilizer - Trees, Shrubs and Hedges

  • 10% organic
  • Long-term fertilizing effect
  • Optimal water storage

Lithos InokuLith

  • Reduces the development of odors
  • Promotes the decomposition of organic compounds
  • Easy to use

Biotaurus Precious Compost - Activator for Organic Plants

Die Natur Compost Cover

  • Dimensions: 2x2 m
  • Water repellent and breathable
  • Protects from humidity and dehydration

BIOgarten Falter & Steiner Concime Biologico di Lana di Pecora "Premium"

Windhager Telo Protettivo per Compost

BIOgarten Falter & Steiner Mix di Concime Biologico -​ Alberi, Arbusti, Siepi, Conifere e Rose

  • Microgranuli rinforzanti
  • Promuove la formazione di humus
  • Dalla Baviera e dall'Austria

BIOgarten Falter & Steiner Concime Biologico in Pellet Plus

BIOgarten Falter & Steiner Mix di Concime Biologico -​ Piante da Balcone e Vaso

  • 50% lana vergine di pecora e 50% fertilizzante naturale
  • Ottimale per piante da balcone e vaso
  • Prodotto utilizzando l'esclusiva tecnologia Mini-Pell

Esschert Design Carbone Attivo per Terrario

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BIOgarten Falter & Steiner Concime Vegetale Biologico -​ Verdure e Orto Rialzato

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